Light and Telescopes

LIGHT: THE BASICS

Longer Wavelengths vs. Shorter Wavelengths

Wavelength: the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the successive wave

Frequency: longer wavelengths corresponds to lower frequency and lower energy, shorter wavelengths correspond to high frequency and higher energy

Radiation: transmission of energy through space

Transmission: light rays or electromagnetic waves bending through a different medium

  • All waves have a source (e.g. electromagnetic waves originate from vibrating charged particles)
  • All waves, except electromagnetic waves, transmit through a medium

Wavelengths in Visible Light

Electromagnetic Spectrum: electromagnetic waves ranging from low frequency,  low energy, and long wavelength to high frequency, high energy, and short wavelength that originate from vibrating charges from the Sun; all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed, or the speed of light (c = 300,000 km/sec or 186,000 miles/sec)

PROPERTIES OF LIGHT

Reflection: light rays or electromagnetic waves bouncing off reflective surfaces (e.g. mirror)

Refraction: light rays or electromagnetic waves bending through a different medium (e.g. air to water)

PROBLEMS WITH LIGHT AND MIRRORS

Spherical Aberration

Spherical Aberration: when light rays incident on the edges of the spherical mirror are focused at a different point from light rays incident closer to the center of the mirror –> blurry images; corrected by using parabolic mirrors

Chromatic Aberration

Chromatic Aberration: as light rays travel through a lens, different wavelength rays are bent by different amounts, resulting in different focal points

OPTICAL TELESCOPES

Three Types: 1. Reflective (mirrors), 2. Refractive (lens); 3. Combined or Catadioptic (both mirrors and lens): combines advantages of refractive and reflective telescopes, while avoiding disadvantages

  • Objective: main lens or mirror
  • Eyepiece: lens that magnifies images
  • Focal Length: distance between the center of the lens and the its focus
  • Aperture: diameter of objective

Functions of Telescopes: to collect light, to resolve details, to magnify, to measure, to record

Problems of Optical Telescopes: “seeing” (Earth’s atmosphere refracts light), air transparency, light pollution

Hubble Space Telescope

Unusual Telescopes

  • Radio: Arecibo, VLA, COBE
  • Microwave, or RadarPIONEER, COBE
  • InfraredSIRTF, IRAS, SPITZER
  • UltravioletCOPERNICUS, IUE
  • X-rayHEAO, EXOSAT, CHANDRA
  • Gamma RayGRO, EINSTEIN, COMPTON
  • OrbitalHUBBLE
  • Multiple MirrorsKECK
  • Interferometry: VLA, VLT
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The Celestial Sphere

The Sun and stars show regular patterns of motion that reflect the rotation of the Earth around its North- South axis and the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. The motions show how the Solar System works — that indeed, the heliocentric “sun-centered” is true.

FRAMES OF REFERENCE: An observer can see half the celestial sphere at any given time, or 6 of 12 constellations. On Earth at any given time, different observers see different parts of the sky, and different motions of starts in their sky. This proves that Earth is a sphere that rotates once per day.

Twelve Constellations of the Ecliptic

CONSTELLATIONS: Constellations are groups of stars forming a pattern or an outline, such as Scorpius (Scorpion), Ursa Major (The Bear), Cygnus (The Swan), and Orion (The Hunter). Constellations in the circumpolar zone are close to the North Celestial Pole and stay up all night and year round, while those in the equatorial zone are near the Celestial Equator and changes during the night and year. An asterism is a sub-group of a constellation, such as the Big Dipper in Ursa Major. The twelve constellations of the zodiac (of the ecliptic) appear during certain months of the year: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces.

The Celestial Sphere

THE NIGHT SKY: While stars “twinkle,” planets do not; planets only reflect light from stars. Stars appear to twinkle because light passes through Earth’s atmosphere and different pockets of air at different temperatures.

MAGNITUDE: In the original magnitude system, 1 is the brightest visible and 6 is the faintest visible. The difference of 5 magnitudes (6-1=5) is actually a factor of 100 in magnitudes. A magnitude 6 star is 100 times fainter than a magnitude 1 star. The modern system differs from the original one, with some stars brighter than magnitude 1 stars and others fainter than magnitude 6 stars. Human eyes respond to light logarithmically: m= -2.5log(b), where b = brightness of star by counting the number of photons per second.

ANGULAR MOVEMENTS & MEASURING WITHOUT A TELESCOPE: The width of your finger held at arm’s length equals 1 degree, while the width of your fist equals 10 degrees (e.g. full moon is about the width of half a finger, or 0.5 degrees).

1 revolution = 360°

2∏ radians = 360°

1° = 60 arcminutes = 60′

1′ = 60 arcseconds = 60”

1° = 60′ x 60°/1′

1° = 3,600”

Light and Black Body Radiation

Light is composed of mass-less infinitesimal particles called photons that travel at the speed of light (300,000,000 m/s).

Electromagnetic Spectrum

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: depicts the different wavelengths and energies of light

Radio Waves –> Microwaves –> Infrared Light –> Visible Light (ROYGBIV) –> Ultraviolet Radiation –> X-Rays –> Gamma Rays (longest –> shortest wavelengths, lowest –> highest energies)

  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Stellar Spectra = continuous spectrum (energy emission over a  broad range of wavelengths – curve)
  • Laser = line spectrum (energy emission at a narrow range of wavelength – peak)

Black-bodies at Different Temperatures

A “black-body” is an object which absorbs all light incident on it and doesn’t reflect or transmit any light. Black bodies are perfect emitters of light. Their classification depends only on temperature, and not other properties such as chemical composition; hence, black-body radiation is also “thermal” radiation. In 1900, Max Planck discovered that a black body emits an energy spectrum of light. Black body radiation includes lava flow (800 K), incandescent light bulbs – tungsten wire heated (2,800 K). Comparing two black bodies of different temperatures, the hotter black-body will: 1) emit more radiation (more luminous); 2) emit more photons; 3) peaks at shorter wavelengths; 4) have a bluer color. Measuring the shape of a star’s spectrum can reveal the star’s temperature.

Wien’s Lawγ peak = 2,900 μm K/ T; using the wavelength of the black-body’s spectrum’s peak to determining the star’s surface temperature

Luminosity: amount of energy radiated by an object per second, in Watts

Brightness: how bright an object appears as seen by an observer; also known as flux received from the star

Stefan- Boltzmann LawL = σT4 x surface area, where L = luminosity, T = temperature, and σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W/ (m²•K4), Stefan-Boltzmann constant; to determine a star’s luminosity

 Apparent Brightness: how bright stars appear to the observer; depends on luminosity and distance

  • considering a set of photons that emerge at the same moment from the star’s surface, the spherical shell of photons is 4∏r², where r = distance from the star
  • L/4∏r² (L = luminosity) = energy per second per surface area of photons
  • apparent brightness or flux: b = L/4∏r²

Absolute Brightness: considering temperature and mass and disregarding distance, how bright the stars actually are

PHOTONS AND THE ATOM

The Atom

The Atom and Its Subatomic Particles

  • Subatomic particles: Electrons (-), Protons (+), and Neutrons (neutral)
  • The mass of a proton is 1830 times the mass of an electron; the mass of a proton is approximately equal to the mass of a neutron
  • While protons and neutrons form the atom’s nucleus, electrons have discrete energy levels in atom
  • The electron can only be on energy levels, not in between
  • Outer orbits have higher energy than inner orbits
  • Most of the space within an atom is empty!

Absorption/ Emission: Photons

Photons: Emission and Absorption

  • Photons are emitted in random fashion (cascade from level to level or all at once – from current level to the ground state, or the lowest energy level, the closest to the nucleus)
  • Absorption of a photon causes the electron to a higher energy level
  • A photon can only be absorbed if its energy is equal to the difference in energy between two energy levels
  • An electron can only stay in a higher energy level for a very short time
  • Ionization: If a photon is large enough, it can kick the electron out of the atom
  • Recombination: When a free electron becomes bound to an atom
  • Electrons give up energy by emitting a photon

Emission Lines from Gas Clouds

Emission Line Spectrum

  • A dilute (non-opaque) gas cloud is not a back-body emitter
  • Atoms in a hot, dilute cloud of ionized gas will emit a characteristic pattern of spectra lines (Emission Line Spectrum)

Absorption Line Spectra

Absorption Spectrum

  • Normal stars have absorption lines
  • Black-body radiation originates from the star’s interior

Why Does Earth Have Seasons?

SEASONS

In the northern hemisphere in summer, the Sun rises in the northeast, stays high overhead at noon, and sets in the northwest. In the winter, the Sun rises in the southeast, stays low in the southern sky at noon, and sets in the southwest. Seasons are caused by the Earth’s tilt of rotational axis to the ecliptic and not by the Earth’s distance to the Sun. The Spring (Vernal) Equinox is the first day of spring (third week in March), when the Sun crosses the Celestial Equator the first time in the year. The Autumnal Equinox is the first day of Fall (third week of September), when the Sun crosses the Celestial Equator six months later. The Summer Solstice is the first day of summer (third week in June), the longest day of the year, and when the Sun is at its highest point in the ecliptic. The Winter Solstice is the first day of winter, the shortest day of the year, and when the Sun is at its lowest point in the ecliptic.

2012 Dates:

Vernal Equinox = March 20, 2012

Summer Solstice = June 20, 2012

Autumnal Equinox = September 22, 2012

Winter Solstice = December 21, 2012

What are Eclipses?

ECLIPSE: An eclipse occurs when one object blocks another. Eclipses occur on Earth because the Sun’s size to the Moon’s size is equal to that of the Sun’s distance to Earth to the Moon’s distance to Earth.

SOLAR ECLIPSE: A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon, between the Sun and Earth, blocks out t he Sun.

LUNAR ECLIPSE: A lunar eclipse when the Earth’s shadow falls on the Moon’ the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon.

  • Total and partial lunar eclipses are much more common than total and partial solar eclipses because the Earth is more likely to block the Sun’s light than the Moon is.
  • Lunar eclipses can also be seen on over a greater area than solar eclipses.
  • Since the Moon’s orbit is tilted 5 degrees more than the Earth’s orbit, eclipses do not occur every month; sometimes, the Moon is too high or too low.
  • Umbra: (total eclipse) the innermost and darkest of the shadows, light source is completely blocked
  • Penumbra: (partial eclipse) only a portion of the light source is blocked
  • Antumbra: (annular eclipse) the occluding body appears entirely with the disc of light

FUTURE ECLIPSES:

November 13-14, 2012 = Total Solar Eclipse

November 28, 2012 = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse